References Supporting Basic Principles and Methods

  • FDE Proficiency
    • “Blind Study on the Reliability of Hand Printing Identification by FDEs,” Mitchell and Merlino, J-ASQDE, June 2016
    • “Effects of Monetary Incentives on Performance of Nonprofessionals in Document-Examination Proficiency Tests,” Kam, Fielding, and Conn, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Sept. 1998
    • “Forensic Handwriting Examiners’ Expertise for Signature Comparison,” Sita, Found, and Rogers, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Sept. 2002
    • “Online Proficiency Testing for Signature Comparison by FDEs and Non-Examiners,” Holmes, Ostrum, and Barton, J-ASQDE, June 2011
    • “Proficiency of Professional Document Examiners in Writer Identification,” Kam, Wetstein, and Conn, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Jan. 1994
    • “Proficiency Testing and Procedure Validation for FDE”, Kam,
    • “Signature Authentication by FDEs,” Kam, Gummadidala, Fielding, and Conn, Journal of Forensic Sciences, July 2001
    • “Validity, Reliability, Accuracy, and Bias in Forensic Signature Identification”, Mara Merlino
    • “Writer Identification by Professional Document Examiners,” Kam, Fielding, and Conn, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Sept. 1997
    • “Writer Identification Using Hand-Printed and Non-Hand-Printed Questioned Documents,” Kam and Lin, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Nov. 2003
  • Support for FDE Principles
    • “Determination of Authorship from a Homogeneous Group of Writers,” Durina and Caligiuri, J-ASQDE, Dec. 2009
    • “Individuality of Handwriting,” Srihari et al, Journal of Forensic Sciences, July 2002
    • “Measuring the Frequency Occurrence of Handwriting and Handprinting Characteristics,” Johnson, Vastrick, Boulanger and Schuetzner, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Jan. 2017
    • Twin Studies
      • “Handwriting of Identical Twins,” Gamble, Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, Jan. 1980
      • “Investigation into the Degree of Similarity in the Handwriting of Identical and Fraternal Twins in New Zealand,” Boot, J-ASQDE, 1998
      • “Study of Handwritings by Twins and Other Persons of Multiple Births,” Beacom, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Jan. 1960
    • Anecdotal Support for Basic Principles